1. Aichinger G, Zechner PM, Prause G, Sacherer F, Wildner G, Anderson CL, et al. Cardiac movement identified on prehospital echocardiography predicts outcome in cardiac arrest patients. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012;16(2):251-5.
2. Breitkreutz R, Price S, Steiger HV, Seeger FH, Ilper H, Ackermann H, et al. Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial. Resuscitation. 2010, Nov;81(11):1527-33.
3. Cohn B. Does the absence of cardiac activity on ultrasonography predict failed resuscitation in cardiac arrest? Ann Emerg Med. 2013, Aug;62(2):180-1.
4. Cureton EL, Yeung LY, Kwan RO, Miraflor EJ, Sadjadi J, Price DD, and Victorino GP. The heart of the matter: utility of ultrasound of cardiac activity during traumatic arrest. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012, Jul;73(1):102-10.
5. Hayhurst C, Lebus C, Atkinson PR, Kendall R, Madan R, Talbot J, et al. An evaluation of echo in life support (ELS): is it feasible? What does it add? Emerg Med J. 2011, Feb;28(2):119-21.
6. Kudenchuk PJ, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Cummins RO, Doherty AM, Fahrenbruch CE, et al. Amiodarone for resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 1999, Sep 16;341(12):871-8.
7. Nelson BP, Patel VR, Norris MM, and Richardson BK. The utility of cardiac sonography and capnography in predicting outcome in cardiac arrest. International journal of emergency medicine. 2008;1(3):213-5.
8. Salen P, O’Connor R, Sierzenski P, Passarello B, Pancu D, Melanson S, et al. Can cardiac sonography and capnography be used independently and in combination to predict resuscitation outcomes? Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2001;8(6):610-5.
9. Salen P, Melniker L, Chooljian C, Rose JS, Alteveer J, Reed J, and Heller M. Does the presence or absence of sonographically identified cardiac activity predict resuscitation outcomes of cardiac arrest patients? Am J Emerg Med. 2005, Jul;23(4):459-62.
10. Schuster KM, Lofthouse R, Moore C, Lui F, Kaplan LJ, and Davis KA. Pulseless electrical activity, focused abdominal sonography for trauma, and cardiac contractile activity as predictors of survival after trauma. J Trauma. 2009, Dec;67(6):1154-7.
11. Schuster KM, and Davis KA. Response to “Pulseless electrical activity focused abdominal sonography for trauma, and cardiac contractile activity as predictors of survival after trauma”. J Trauma. 2010, May;68(5):1270.
12. Tayal VS, and Kline JA. Emergency echocardiography to detect pericardial effusion in patients in PEA and near-PEA states. Resuscitation. 2003, Dec;59(3):315-318.
13. Tomruk O, Erdur B, Cetin G, Ergin A, Avcil M, and Kapci M. Assessment of Cardiac Ultrasonography in Predicting Outcome in Adult Cardiac Arrest. Journal of International Medical Research. 2012, Apr 1;40(2):804-809.
Algorithmic approach to Cardiac Arrest Ultrasound
1. Amaya SC, and Langsam A. Ultrasound detection of ventricular fibrillation disguised as asystole. Ann Emerg Med. 1999, Mar;33(3):344-6.
2. Blyth L, Atkinson P, Gadd K, and Lang E. Bedside focused echocardiography as predictor of survival in cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review. Acad Emerg Med. 2012, Oct;19(10): 1119-26.
3. Chardoli M, Heidari F, Rabiee H, Sharif-Alhoseini M, Shokoohi H, and Rahimi-Movaghar V. Echocardiography integrated ACLS protocol versus conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. Chin J Traumatol. 2012;15(5):284-7.
4. Hernandez C, Shuler K, Hannan H, Sonyika C, Likourezos A, and Marshall J. C.A.U.S.E.: Cardiac arrest ultra-sound exam–a better approach to managing patients in primary non- arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2008, Feb;76(2):198-206.
5. Horowitz R, Gossett JG, Bailitz J, Wax D, and Pierce MC. The FLUSH Study-Flush the Line and Ultrasound the Heart: Ultrasonographic Confirmation of Central Femoral Venous Line Placement. Ann Emerg Med. 2014, Jan 15;
6. Mallin M, Curtis K, Dawson M, Ockerse P, and Ahern M. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided marking of the cricothyroid membrane before simulated failed intubation. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2014, Jan;32(1):61-63.
7. Nagdev A, and Mantuani D. A novel in-plane technique for ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis. Am J Emerg Med. 2013, Sep;31(9):1424.e5-9.
8. Pfeiffer P, Rudolph SS, BÃ¸rglum J, and Isbye DL. Temporal comparison of ultrasound vs. auscultation and capnography in verification of endotracheal tube placement. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011, Nov;55(10):1190-5.
9. Pfeiffer P, Bache S, Isbye DL, Rudolph SS, Rovsing L, and BÃ¸rglum J. Verification of endotracheal intubation in obese patients – temporal comparison of ultrasound vs. auscultation and capnography. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012, May;56(5):571-6.
10. Weingart SW, Duque DD, and Nelson BN. The RUSH Exam – Rapid Ultrasound for Shock / Hypotension [Internet]. ACEP-EMED Home. 2009, Apr 3;[cited 2011, Jan 9] Available from: http:// www.webcitation.org/5vyzOaPYU
Future of Cardiac Arrest Ultrasound
1. Abbasi S, Farsi D, Zare MA, Hajimohammadi M, Rezai M, and Hafezimoghadam P. Direct ultrasound methods: a confirmatory technique for proper endotracheal intubation in the emergency department. Eur J Emerg Med. 2014, Jan 16;
2. Blaivas M. Transesophageal echocardiography during cardiopulmonary arrest in the emergency department. Resuscitation. 2008, Aug;78(2):135-40.
3. Copetti R. Clinical Integrated Ultrasound in Peri Cardiac Arrest and Cardiac Arrest. J Clinic Experiment Cardiol S. 2012;102.
4. Doepp Connolly F, Reitemeier J, Storm C, Hasper D, and Schreiber SJ. Duplex sonography of cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest-A prospective observational study. Resuscitation. 2013, Dec 30;
5. Hogan TS. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity. Med Hypotheses. 2012, Oct;79(4):445-7.
6. van der Wouw PA, Koster RW, Delemarre BJ, de Vos R, Lampe-Schoenmaeckers AJ, and Lie KI. Diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal echocardiography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997, Sep;30(3):780-3.
7. Vieillard-Baron A, Slama M, Mayo P, Charron C, Amiel JB, Esterez C, et al. A pilot study on safety and clinical utility of a single-use 72-hour indwelling transesophageal echocardiography probe. Intensive Care Med. 2013, Apr;39(4):629-35.