A prior post discussed the optimal imaging angle for 2D scanning.
Quick quiz: what is that angle?
In this post we’ll illustrate the optimal imaging angle for Doppler evaluation. Let’s start with basic Doppler physics.
Where to police officers situate themselves to aim a radar gun at speeding cars?
The maximal Doppler shift will be seen at 180 degrees. In fact at the instant the car passes the officer, (90 degrees) there will be zero Doppler shift. At that instant there is no movement between the object and the listener. So they aim the gun directly at the oncoming traffic, so the direction of their beam is parallel to the direction of [traffic] flow.
The image below illustrates Doppler shift of ultrasound reflected off a red blood cell:
- Top: A normal ultrasound wave
- Middle: Doppler shift reflected off the RBC moving toward the transducer (thus increasing the frequency of the returning wave)
- Bottom: Doppler shift reflected off the RBC moving away from the transducer (thus decreasing the frequency of the returning wave).
Thanks to equipmentexplained.com for the image. Imaging at 180 degrees is impractical for diagnostic ultrasound, since the optimal B-mode imaging angle is 90 degrees. Therefore, most authorities recommend an imaging angle between 45-60 degrees for Doppler ultrasound imaging . If you are imaging a vascular structure at 90 degrees and getting no Doppler signal, try lowering your angle.